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Most recent books


'The Microbiology of Safe Food' 2010 2nd Edition.

Additional online links for updates & exercises URL


Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) ASM Press book.

J. Farber, & S.J. Forsythe (Eds) (2008) Enterobacter sakazakii. ASM Press.


Notable other activities and reports:

  1. Microbial Safety of Lipid-based Ready-to-Use Foods (RUF) for Management of Moderate and Severe Acute Malnutrition. FAO-WHO expert meeting 2014 (Published 2015).
  2. Microbial Safety of Lipid-based Ready-to-Use Foods (RUF) for Management of Moderate Acute Malnutrition and Severe Acute Malnutrition. FAO-WHO expert meeting 2012 (Published 2015).
  3. Bacteriocidal preparation of powdered infant formula (2009). UK Food Standards Agency URL
  4. FAO-WHO 3rd Workshop on Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii and follow-on formula, Washington 15-17 July, 2008. Report.
  5. FAO-WHO 2nd Workshop on Enterobacter sakazakii and Salmonella in powdered infant formula, Rome 16-20 January 2006. Report.
  6. FAO-WHO 1st Workshop on Enterobacter sakazakii and other microorganisms in powdered infant formula, Geneva 2-5 February 2004. Report.

Cronobacter PubMLST YouTube videos

  • Part 1 General aspects of the database
  • Part 2 Isolates analysis
  • Part 3 Whole genome MLST
  • Part 4 Extras


  • Refereed Publications:

    Fei, P., Jiang, Y., Feng, J., Forsythe, S., Li, R., Zhou, Y. & Man, C. (2017)
    Antibiotic and desiccation resistance of Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus isolates from powdered infant formula and processing environments. Frontiers in Microbiology. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00316.

    Brandao, M.L.L., Umeda, N.S., Jackson, E.E., Forsythe, S.J. & de Filippis, I. (2017)
    Isolation, molecular and phenotypic characterization, and antibiotic susceptibility of Cronobacter spp. in Brazilian retail foods. Food Microbiology. 63:129-138.

    Yarnell, K., LeBon, M., Turton, N., Savova, M., McGlennon, A., & Forsythe, S.J. (2017)
    Reducing exposure to pathogens in the horse; A preliminary study into the survival of bacteria on a range of equine bedding types. J. Appl. Microbiol. 122:23-29.

    Ogrodzki, P., & Forsythe, S.J. (2016)
    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)-cas loci profiling of Cronobacter sakazakii pathovars. Future Microbiology. Online version.

    Costa, M., Retamal, J., Rodriguez, A., Chavarria, P., Parra J., Contreras, A., & Forsythe, S.(2016)
    Microbiological safety of commercial and artisanal fresh cheeses sold in Chillan. Rev. Chil. Nutr. 43:172-179.

    DAgostino, M., Robles, S., Hansen, F. et al. (2016)
    Validation of a Loop-Mediated Amplification/ISO 6579-based method for analysing soya meal for the presence of Salmonella enterica. Food Analytical Methods .pp.1-7. DOI: 10.1007/s12161-016-0602-7

    Jackson, E.E., & Forsythe, S.J. (2016)
    Comparative study of Cronobacter identification according to phenotyping methods. BMC Microbiology 16:146.

    Szulta, S., Czerwicka, M., Forsythe, S.J., Ossowska, K., Dziadziuszko, H., Kaczynski, Z. (2016)
    Structural characterization of the O-polysaccharide isolated from Franconibacter helveticus LMG23732T. Carbohydrate Research 431:39-41.

    Juma, N., Manning, G., & Forsythe, S.J. (2016)
    Desiccation survival of Acinetobacter spp. in infant formula. Food Control 68:162-166.

    Oieskova, M., Kajsik, M., Szemes, T., Holy, O., Turna, J., Forsythe, S.J. & Drahovska, H. (2016)
    Contribution of the thermotolerance genomic island to increased thermal tolerance in Cronobacter strains. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 109: 405-414.

    Jackson, E.E., Ogrodzki, P., Pascoe, B., Sheppard, S.K., & Forsythe, S.J. (2016)
    Draft genome sequence of an Enterobacter species associated with illnesses and powdered infant formula. Genome Announcements 4:e01479-15.

    Almajed, F.S. & Forsythe, S.J. (2016)
    Cronobacter sakazakii clinical isolates overcome host barriers and evade the immune response. Microbial Pathogenesis 90:55-63.

    Alkeskas, A., Ogrodzki, P., Saad, M., Masood, N., Rhouma, N., Moore, K., Farbos, A., Paszkiewicz, K., & Forsythe, S. (2015)
    The molecular characterisation of Escherichia coli K1 isolated from neonatal nasogastric feeding tubes. BMC Infectious Disease 15:449.

    Ogrodzki, P., & Forsythe, S. (2015)
    Capsular profiling of the Cronobacter genus and the association of specific Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus capsule types with neonatal meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis. BMC Genomics 16:758.

    Masood, N., Moore, K., Farbos, A., Paszkiewicz, K., Dickins, B., McNally, A., & Forsythe, S.J. (2015)
    Genomic dissection of the 1994 Cronobacter sakazakii outbreak in a French neonatal intensive care unit. BMC Genomics 16:750.

    Chaturvedi, N., Kajsik, M., Forsythe, S., & Pandey, P.N. (2015)
    Protein sequences insight into heavy metal tolerance in Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 encoded by plasmid pESA3. Archives in Microbiology 34:1979-1988.

    Alsonosi, A., Hariri, S., Kajsik M., Orieskova M., Hanulik V., Roderova M., Petrzelova J., Kollarova H., Drahovska H., Forsythe S., Holy O. (2015)
    The speciation and genotyping of Cronobacter isolates from hospitalised patients. Euro.J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:1979-1988. Open Access.

    Blazkova, M., Javurkova, B., Vlach, J., Goselova, S., Ogrodzki, P., Forsythe, S., Karamonova, L., Fukal, L. (2015)
    Diversity of O-antigen designations within the genus Cronobacter: from disorder to order. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 81:5574-5582.

    Fei, P., Man, C., Lou, B., Forsythe, S., Chai, Y.,Li, R., Niu, J. & Jiang, Y. (2015)
    Genotyping and source tracking of the Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus isolated from powdered infant formula and an infant formula production factory in China. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 81:5430-5439.

    Alzahrani, H., Winter, J., Boocock, D., Girolamo, L., & Forsythe, S. (2015)
    Characterisation of outer membrane vesicles from a neonatal meningitic strain of Cronobacter sakazakii. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 362(12):fnv085.

    Jing-Hua,C., Xiao-Li, D., Rong-Jie, W., Zhai-Jian, Z., Wei, L., Forsythe, S., & Zhi-Gang, C. (2015)
    Multilocus sequence typing analysis of Cronobacter spp. isolated from China. Archives in Microbiology 197:665-72.

    Jackson, E.E., Masood, N., Ibrahim, K., Urvoy, N., Hariri, S., & Forsythe, S.J. (2015)
    Siccibacter colletis sp. nov., a new Siccibacter species isolated from plant material. Intl J System Evol Microbiol.65:1335-1341.. Also Supplementary material

    Jackson, E.E., Parra Flores, J., Fernandez-Escartin, E., & Forsythe, S.J. (2015)
    Re-evaluation of a suspected Cronobacter sakazakii outbreak in Mexico. J. Food Protection 78:1191-1196.

    Marszewska, K., Czerwicka, M., Forsythe, S.J., Ossowska, K., Dziadziuszko, H., Kaczynskia, Z. (2015)
    Structural studies of O-polysaccharide isolated from Cronobacter sakazakii Sequence Type 12 from a case of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Carbohydrate Research 407:55-8.

    Parra, J.F., Oliveras, L.V., Rodriguez, A.F., Riffo, F.S., Jackson, E., Forsythe, S. (2015)
    Risk of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered milk for infant nutrition. Revista Chilena de Nutricion. 42:83-89.

    Zh Xu, Y., Metris, A., Stasinopoulis, D., Forsythe, S.J., & Sutherland, J.P. (2015)
    Effect of heat shock and recovery temperature on variability of single cell lag time of Cronobacter. Food Microbiology. Special Issue on Predictive Modeling in Food. 45(PtB):195-204.

    Forsythe, S.J., Dickins, B., & Jolley, K.A. (2014)
    Cronobacter, the emergent bacterial pathogen Enterobacter sakazakii comes of age; MLST and whole genome sequence analysis. BMC Genomics 15:1121

    Marszewska, K., Czerwicka, M., Forsythe, S.J., Saldak, E., Szulta, S., Dziadziuszko, H., Ossowska, K., & Kaczynski, Z. (2014)
    The structure of O-polysaccharide isolated from Cronobacter universalis NCTC 9529T. Carbohydrate Research 398:77-79.

    Jackson, E., Sonbol, H., Masood, N., & Forsythe, S.J. (2014)
    Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of Cronobacter species, with particular attention to the newly reclassified species C. helveticus, C. pulveris, and C. zurichensis. Food Microbiology. 44:226-235.

    Masood, N., Jackson, E., Moore, K., Farbos, A., Paszkiewicz, K., Dickins, B., McNally, A., & Forsythe, S. (2014)
    Draft genome sequence of "Candidatus Cronobacter colletis" NCTC 14934T, a new species in the genus Cronobacter. Gen. Announ. 2(3)e00585-14.

    Holy, O., Petrzelova, J., Hanulik, V., Chroma, M., Matouskova, I. & Forsythe, S.J. (2014)
    Epidemiology of Cronobacter spp. isolates from hospital patients from the University Hospital Olomouc (Czech Republic). Epidemiol Mikrobiol Immunol.63:69-72.

    Holy, O. & Forsythe, S.J. (2014)
    Cronobacter species as emerging causes of healthcare-associated infection. Journal of Hospital Infections. 86:169-177.

    Phair, J., Benson, J., McCormac, C., Cundell, J., Gracheva, S., Wilkinson, D., Forsythe, S. & Davis, J. (2014)
    Butyl grafted polyethylene films doped with carbon black: A foundation for the development of smart bandages. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical.193:764-769.

    Masood, N., Moore, K., Farbos, A., Hariri, S., Block, C., Paszkiewicz, K., Dickins, B., McNally, A., & Forsythe, S. (2013c)
    Draft genome sequence of a meningitic isolate of Cronobacter sakazakii Clonal Complex 4, strain 8399. Gen. Announ. Oct 10;1(5)doi:pii: e00833-13. 10.1128/genomeA.00833-13. .

    Masood, N., Moore, K., Farbos, A., Hariri, S., Paszkiewicz, K., Dickins, B., McNally, A., & Forsythe, SS. (2013b)
    Draft genome sequences of Cronobacter helveticus LMG23732T, Cronobacter pulveris LMG24059 and Cronobacter zurichensis LMG23730T; three newly identified species in the genus Cronobacter. Gen. Announ. Sep26;1(5). doi:pii: e00783-13. 10.1128/genomeA.00783-13.

    Masood, N., Moore, K., Farbos, A., Hariri, S., Paszkiewicz, K., Dickins, B., McNally, A., & Forsythe, S. (2013a)
    Draft genome sequence of the earliest Cronobacter sakazakii sequence type 4 strain NCIMB 8272. Gen. Announ. Sep 26;1(5). doi:pii:e00782-13. 10.1128/genomeA.00782-13.

    Levican, A., Alkeskas, A., Gunter, C., Forsythe, S.J., & Jose Figueras, M. (2013)
    The adherence and invasion of human intestinal cells by Arcobacter species and their virulence genotype. Applied Environ. Microbiol. 79:4951-7.

    Joseph, S., Hariri, S., Masood, N., & Forsythe, S. (2013)
    Sialic acid utilization by Cronobacter sakazakii. Microbial Informatics and Experimentation 3:3 .

    Santos, R.F.S., da Silva, N., Junqueira, V.C.A, Kajsik, M., Forsythe, S., Pereira J.L. (2013)
    Screening for Cronobacter species in powdered and reconstituted infant formulas and from equipment used in formula preparation in maternity hospitals. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 63:62-68 .

    Czerwicka, M., Marszewska, K., Forsythe, S.J., et al. (2013)
    Chemical structure of the O-polysaccharides isolated from Cronobacter turicensis sequence type 5 strains 57, 564 and 566. Carbohydrate Research 373:89-92.

    Joseph, S., Hariri, S., & Forsythe, S.J. (2013)
    Lack of continuity between Cronobacter biotypes and species as determined using multilocus sequence typing. Molecular and Cellular Probes. 27:137-139.

    Sonbol, H., Joseph, S., McAuley, C., Craven, H., & Forsythe, S.J. (2013)
    Multilocus sequence typing of Cronobacter spp. from powdered infant formula and milk powder production factories. International Dairy Journal. 30:1-7.

    Abdullah Sani, N., Hartantyo, S.H.P., & Forsythe, S.J. (2013)
    Microbiological assessment and evaluation of rehydration instructions on powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas and infant foods in Malaysia. Journal of Dairy Science. 96:1-8.

    Hariri, S., Joseph, S., & Forsythe, S.J. (2013)
    Cronobacter sakazakii ST4 strains and neonatal meningitis, US.Emerging Infectious Disease.19:175-177.

    Cetinkaya, E.,Joseph, S., Ayhan, K., & Forsythe, S.J. (2012).
    Comparison of methods for the microbiological identification and profiling of Cronobacter species from ingredients used in the preparation of infant formula. Molecular and Cellular Probes. 27:60-64.

    Joseph, S., & Forsythe, S.J. (2012)
    Insights into the emergent bacterial pathogen Cronobacter spp., generated by multilocus sequence typing and analysis. Frontiers in Food Microbiology. 3:397.

    Joseph, S., Desai, P.,Li, Y. et al. (2012)
    Comparative analysis of genome sequences covering the seven Cronobacter species. PLoS ONE 7(11):e49455.

    Joseph, S., Sonbol, H., Hariri, S., Desai, P., McClelland, M., & Forsythe, S.J. (2012)
    Diversity of the Cronobacter genus as revealed by multi locus sequence typing. J Clin Microbiol. 50:3031-3039.

    Joseph, S., Cetinkaya, E., Drahovske, H., Levican, A., Figueras, M.J., & Forsythe, S.J. (2012)
    Cronobacter condimenti sp. nov., isolated from spiced meat and Cronobacter universalis sp. nov., a novel species designation for Cronobacter sp. genomospecies 1, recovered from a leg infection, water, and food ingredients. Intl J Syst Evol Microbiol. 62:1277-1283.

    Hamby, S., Joseph, S., Forsythe, S.J., & Chuzhanova, N. (2011)
    In silico identification of pathogenic strains of Cronobacter from biochemical data reveals association of inositol fermentation with pathogenicity. BMC Microbiology. 11:204

    Joseph, S. & Forsythe, S. (2011)
    Predominance of Cronobacter sakazakii sequence type 4 in neonatal infections. Emerging Infectious Disease 17:1713-1715.

    Kucerova, E., Joseph, S., and Forsythe, S. (2011)
    Cronobacter: diversity and ubiquity. Quality Assurance and Safety of Foods and Crops 3:104-122.

    Ghassem, M., Babji, A.S., Forsythe, S.J. & Norrakiah, A.S. (2011)
    Growth and survival of Cronobacter species as measured by media performance. International Food Research Journal 18:367-372.

    Kucerova, E., Clifton, S.W, Xia, X-Q, et al. (2010)
    Genome sequence of Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 and comparative genomic hybridization analysis with other Cronobacter species. PLoS ONE 5(3):e9556.

    Osaili, T.M., Al-Nabulsi, A.A., Shaker, R.R., Al-Holy, M.M., Al-Haddaq, M.S., Olaimat, A.N., Ayyash, M.M., Al Ta'ani, M.K., and Forsythe, S.J. (2010)
    Efficacy of the thin agar layer method for the recovery of stressed Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) Journal of Food Protection 73:1913-1918.

    Czerwicka, M., Forsythe S.J., Bychowska, A., Dziadziuszko, H., Kunikowska, D., Stepnowski, P., & Kaczynski, Z. (2010)
    Chemical structure of the O-polysaccharide isolated from Cronobacter sakazakii 767. Carbohydrate Research. 345:908-913.

    Sharp, D., Gladstone, P., Smith, R.B., Forsythe, S. & Davis, J. (2010)
    Approaching intelligent infection diagnostics: Carbon fibre sensor for electrochemical pyocyanin detection. Bioelectrochemistry 77:114-119.

    Baldwin, A., Loughlin, M., Caubilla-Barron, J., Kucerova, E., Manning, G., Dowson, C. & Forsythe, S. (2009)
    Multilocus sequence typing of Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus reveals stable clonal structures with clinical significance which do not correlate with biotypes. BMC Microbiology 9:223

    Hurrell, E., Kucerova, E., Loughlin, M., Caubilla-Barron, J., Hilton, A., Armstrong, R., Smith, C., Grant, J., Shoo, S.& Forsythe, S. (2009)
    Neonatal enteral feeding tubes as loci for colonisation by members of the Enterobacteriaceae. BMC Infectious Diseases 9:146

    Hurrell, E., Kucerova, E., Loughlin, M., Caubilla-Barron, J. & Forsythe, S.J. (2009)
    Biofilm formation on enteral feeding tubes by Cronobacter sakazakii , Salmonella serovars and other Enterobacteriaceae. Intl. J. Food Microbiol. 136:227-231.

    Osaili, T., & Forsythe, S. (2009)
    Desiccation resistance and persistence of Cronobacter species in infant formula. Intl J. Food Microbiol. 136:214-220.

    Chap, J., Jackson, P., Siqueira, R., Gaspar, N., Quintas, C., Park, J., Osaili, T., Shaker, R., Jaradat, Z., Hartantyo, S.H.P., Abdullah Sani, N., Estuningsih, S., & Forsythe, S.J. (2009)
    International survey of Cronobacter sakazakii and other Cronobacter spp. in follow up formulas and infant foods. Intl J Food Microbiol.136:185-188.

    Osaili, T.M., Shaker, R.R., Ayyash, M.M., Al-Nabulsi, A.A., & Forsythe, S.J. (2009)
    Survival and growth of Cronobacter species (Enterobacter sakazakii) in wheat-based infant follow on formulas. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 48:408-412

    Townsend, S.M., Hurrell, E., Caubilla-Barron, J., Loc-Carrillo, C. & Forsythe, S.J. (2008)
    Characterization of an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase Enterobacter hormaechei nosocomial outbreak, and other Enterobacter hormaechei misidentified as Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii Microbiology 154:3659-3667URL

    Shaker, R.R., Osaili, T.M., Al-Hasan, A.S.A., Ayyash, M.M, & Forsythe, S.J. (2008)
    Effect of desiccation, starvation, heat, and cold stresses on the thermal resistance of Enterobacter sakazakii in rehydrated infant milk formula. J Food Sci 73:354-359 URL

    Townsend, S., Hurrell, E., & Forsythe, S.J. (2008)
    Virulence studies of Enterobacter sakazakii isolates associated with a neonatal intensive care unit outbreak. BMC Microbiol 8:64. URL

    Sharp, D., Forsythe, S., & Davis, J. (2008)
    Carbon fibre composites: integrated electrochemical sensors for wound management. The Journal of Biochemistry; Biotechnology:Biosensors and Bioelectrics. 114:87-93 URL

    Osaili, T.M., Shaker, R.R., Olaimat, A.N., Al-Nabulsi, A.A., Al-Holy, M.A., & Forsythe, S.J. (2008)
    Detergent and sanitizer stresses decrease the thermal resistance of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant milk formula. J Food Science 73:154-157. URL

    Caubilla-Barron, J., Hurrell, E., Townsend, S., Cheetham, P., Loc-Carrillo, C., Fayet, O., Prere, M. -F., & Forsythe, S.J. (2007)
    Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of Enterobacter sakazakii strains from an outbreak resulting in fatalities in a neonatal intensive care unit in France. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 45:3979-3985.URL

    Townsend, S. M., Hurrell, E., Gonzalez-Gomez, I., Lowe, L., Frye, J.G., Forsythe, S., & Badger, J. L. (2007)
    Enterobacter sakazakii invades brain capillary endothelial cells, persists in human macrophages influencing cytokine secretion and induces severe brain pathology in the neonatal rat.
    Microbiology 153: 3538-3547 URL.

    Caubilla-Barron, J. & Forsythe, S. (2007)
    Dry stress and survival time of Enterobacter sakazakii and other Enterobacteriaceae Journal of Food Protection 70:2111-2117 URL.

    Iversen, C. & Forsythe, S.(2007)
    Comparison of media for the isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 73:48-52. URL.

    Townsend, S., Caubilla-Barron, J., Loc-Carrillo, C. & Forsythe, S. (2007).
    The presence of endotoxin in powdered infant formula milk and the influence of endotoxin and Enterobacter sakazakii on bacterial translocation in the infant rat. Food Microbiology 24:67-74.

    Iversen, C., Waddington, M., Farmer, J.J. III & Forsythe, S. (2006).
    The biochemical differentiation of Enterobacter sakazakii genotypes. BMC Microbiology 6:94 (Online).

    On, S.L.W., Dorrell, N., Petersen, L., Bang, D.D., Morris, S., Forsythe, S.,. & Wren, B. (2006)
    Numerical analysis of DNA microarray data of Campylobacter jejuni strains correlated with survival, cytolethal distending toxin and haemolysin analyses. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 296:353-363.

    Iversen, C, Lancashire, L, Waddington M, Forsythe S and Ball, G. (2006).
    Identification of Enterobacter sakazakii from closely related species: The use of Artificial Neural Networks in the analysis of biochemical and 16S rDNA data. BMC Microbiology 6:28. (Online).

    Forsythe, S. (2005)
    Enterobacter sakazakii and other bacteria in powdered infant milk formula. Mother and Child Nutrition. 1:44-50. Voted Unicef Paper of the Month.

    Iversen, C., Waddington, M., On, S.L.W. & Forsythe, S. (2004)
    Identification and phylogeny of Enterobacter sakazakii relative to Enterobacter and Citrobacter. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. I42: 5368-70 URL

    Iversen, C. & Forsythe, S.J. (2004)
    Isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii and other Enterobacteriaceae from powdered infant formula milk and related products. Food Microbiology 21: 771-776.

    Iversen, C. , Druggan, P. & Forsythe, S.J. (2004)
    A selective differential medium for Enterobacter sakazakii. Int. J. Food Microbiology 96: 133-139. Details Druggan-Forsythe-Iversen agar Oxoid (CM1055)

    Iversen, C., Lane, M. &Forsythe, S.J. (2004)
    The growth profile, thermotolerance and biofilm formation of Enterobacter sakazakii grown in infant formula milk. Lett Appl Microbiol 38: 378-382.

    Iversen, C. & Forsythe, S.J. (2003)
    Risk profile of Enterobacter sakazakii, an emergent pathogen associated with infant milk formula. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 11: 443-454. URL

    Gottlieb, A., Smith, A., Wheatley, A. & Forsythe, S.J. (2003)
    The toxicity of textile reactive azo dyes after hydrolysis and decolourisation. Journal of Biotechnology. 101: 49-56.

    Walker, E., Pritchard, C. and Forsythe, S. (2003)
    Food handlers' hygiene knowledge in small food businesses. Food Control. 14: 339-343.

    Walker, E., Pritchard, C. and Forsythe, S. (2003)
    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point and prerequisite programme implementation in small and medium size food businesses. Food Control. 14: 169-174.

    Hilton, C.L., Mackey, B.M., Hargreaves, A.J. and Forsythe, S.J. (2001)
    The recovery of Arcobacter butzleri NCTC 12481 from various temperature treatments. Journal of Applied Microbiology 91: 929-932.

    Mansfield, L.P. and Forsythe, S.J. 2001)
    The detection of Salmonella serovars from raw chicken and animal feeds using a combined immunomagnetic separation and ELISA method. Food Microbiology 18: 361-366.

    Mansfield, L.P. and Forsythe, S.J. (2001)
    The demonstration of the Rb1 LPS core structure in Salmonella strains using the monoclonal antibody M105. Journal of Medical Microbiology 50: 339-344.

    Martin, E.B., Mansfield, L.P., Smith, A. and Forsythe, S.J. (2001)
    Inhibition of light emission from the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischerii after exposure to triclosan and related hygiene care products. Luminescence 16:29-32.

    Mansfield, L.P. and Forsythe, S.J. (2000)
    The detection of Salmonella using a combined immunomagnetic separation and ELISA end-detection procedure. Letters in Applied Microbiology 31:279-283.

    Mansfield, L.P. and Forsythe, S.J.(2000)
    Arcobacter butzleri and A. cryaerophilus; newly emerging human pathogens. Reviews in Medical Microbiology 11:161-170.

    Corbitt, A.J., Bennion, N. and Forsythe, S.J.(2000)
    Adenylate kinase amplification of ATP bioluminescence for hygiene monitoring in the food and beverage indusry. Letters in Applied Microbiology 30:443-447.

    Calvert, R.M., Hopkins, H.C., Reilly, M.J. and Forsythe, S.J. (2000)
    Caged-ATP; an internal calibration method for ATP bioluminescence assays. Letters in Applied Microbiology 30:223-227.

    Mansfield, L.P. and Forsythe, S.J. (2000)
    Detection of salmonellae in food. Reviews in Medical Microbiology 11:37-46.

    Mansfield, L.P., Billett, E., Olsen, E. and Forsythe, S.J. (1996)
    Variation in Salmonella lipopolysaccharide as detected by the monoclonal antibody M105. Letters in Applied Microbiology 23:104-106.

    Silley, P. and Forsythe, S.J. (1996)
    Impedance microbiology-a rapid change for microbiologists. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 80:233-243.

    Mansfield, L. and Forsythe, S.J. (1996)
    Collaborative ring-trial of Dynabeads Anti-Salmonella for immunomagnetic separation of stressed Salmonella cells from herbs and spices. International Journal of Food Microbiology 29:41-47.

    Safarik, I., Safarika, M. and Forsythe, S. (1995)
    The application of magnetic separations in applied microbiology. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 78:575-585.

    Dziadkowiec, D., Mansfield, L.P. and Forsythe, S.J. (1995)
    Comparison of Salmonella isolation with immunomagnetic separation and conventional enrichment techniques. Letters in Applied Microbiology 20: 361-364.

    Metheringham, R., Griffiths, L., Crooke, H., Forsythe, S. and Cole, J. (1995)
    An essential role for DsbA in cytochrome c synthesis and formate-dependent nitrite reduction by E. coli K-12. Archives of Microbiology 164:301-307.

    Sweeney, E.A., Chipman, J.K. and Forsythe, S.J. (1994)
    Evidence for direct acting oxidative genetic toxicity by reduction products of azo dyes. Environmental Health Perspectives102: 119-122.

    Mansfield, L and Forsythe, S.J. (1993)
    Immunomagnetic separation as an alternative to enrichment broths for Salmonella detection. Letters in Applied Microbiology 16:122-125.

    Parmar, N., Easter, M.C., and Forsythe, S.J.(1992)
    The detection of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium using immunomagnetic separation and conductance microbiology. Letters in Applied Microbiology 15:175-178.

    Forsythe, S.J. (1990)
    The rapid detection of direct-acting DNA mutagens by electrical impedance with a DNA repair-deficient strain of Escherichia coli. Letters in Applied Microbiology 11:30-32.

    Brew, F. and Forsythe, S. (1990)
    The rapid nitrosation of 2,3-diaminonaphthalene by gastric isolates of Neisseria subflava. Letters in Applied Microbiology 10:39-42.

    Forsythe, S.J.,Dolby, J.M., Webster, A.D.B. and Cole, J.A. (1988)
    Nitrate- and nitrite-reducing bacteria in the achlorhydric stomach. Journal of Medical Microbiology 25:253-259.

    Forsythe, S.J. and Cole, J.A.(1987)
    Nitrite accumulation during anaerobic nitrate reduction by binary suspensions of bacteria isolated from the achlorhydric stomach. Journal of General Microbiology 133:1845-1849.

    Forsythe, S.J. and Parker, D.S. (1985)
    Ammonia-nitrogen turnover in the rabbit caecum and exchange with plasma urea-N. British Journal of Nutrition 54:285-292.

    Forsythe, S.J. and Parker, D.S. (1985)
    Urea turnover and transfer to the digestive tract in the rabbit. British Journal of Nutrition 53:183-190.

    Forsythe, S.J. and Parker, D.S. (1985)
    Nitrogen metabolism by the microbial flora of the rabbit caecum. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 58:363-369.

    Book chapters

    Forsythe S.J.(2016) Emerging Foodborne Enteric Bacterial Pathogens. In: Caballero, B., Finglas, P., and Toldra, F. (eds.) The Encyclopedia of Food and Health vol. 2, pp. 487-497. Oxford: Academic Press.

    Juma, J.A. & Forsythe, S.J.(2015) Microbial biofilm development on neonatal enteral feeding tubes. In G. Donelli (Ed.) Biofilm-based healthcare-associated infections Volume 1, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 830. Springer International Publishing.

    Forsythe, SJ.(2015) New insights into the emergent bacterial pathogen Cronobacter . Chapter 13. Elsevier.

    Forsythe, SJ.(2014) Powdered infant formula. Low Water Activity Food Commodities of Interest. Springer

    Joseph, S. & Forsythe, SJ. (2014) DNA typing methods for members of the Cronobacter genus. Chapter 10. DNA Methods in Food Safety: Molecular Typing of Foodborne and Waterborne Bacterial Pathogens, First Edition. Edited by O. A. Oyarzabal and S. Kathariou. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Forsythe, SJ., Abbott, S. & Pittout J. Chapter: Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Cronobacter, Serratia, Plesiomonas and Other Enterobacteriaceae . ASM Press. 11th Edition. Manual of Clinical Microbiology

    S. Forsythe(2014) Powdered Infant Formula. In: J.B. Gurtler et al. (eds.) The Microbiological Safety of Low Water Activity Foods and Spices, Food Microbiology and Food Safety. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014.

    Fanning, S. & Forsythe, S.J.(2008) Isolation and identification of Enterobacter sakazakii. Chapter 2 in J. Farber, & S.J. Forsythe (Eds) Enterobacter sakazakii. ASM Press.

    Townsend, S. & Forsythe, S.J.(2008) The neonatal intestinal microbial flora, immunity, and infections. Chapter 3 in J. Farber, & S.J. Forsythe (Eds) Enterobacter sakazakii. ASM Press.

    Forsythe, S.J. (2008) Other Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. In: Blackburn, C. and McClure, P., (Eds). Foodborne pathogens: hazards, risk analysis and control. Woodhead Publishing.

    Forsythe, S.J. (2006) Arcobacter. In 'Emerging foodborne pathogens'. Ed. Motarjemi, Y. & Adams, M. Woodhead Publishing.

    Forsythe, S.J. (2002) Advances in the microbial decolourisation of textile dyes in waste water. Society of Dyers and Colourists.

    Corry, J., Mansfield, L.P. and Forsythe, S.J. (2002) Culture media for the detection of Campylobacter and related organisms'. In'Culture media for Food Microbiology'. Ed. JEL Corry, GDW Curtis & R. Baird, Elsevier Science.

    Bardos, R.P., Forsythe, S.J. & Westlake, K. (1996) The co-treatment of municipal and industrial wastes. In `The Science of Composting' Part 2. Ed. Bertoldi, et al. Chapman & Hall.

    Druggan, P., Forsythe, S.J., & Silley, P. (1993)`Indirect impedance for microbial screening in the food and beverage industry’. In `Applications of new techniques in food and beverage microbiology', editor R. Kroll and A. Gilmour, SAB Technical Series No. 31. Academic Press.

    Forsythe, S.J. (1991) `Methods for biochemical studies’. Chapter 7, pp121-143. In `Anaerobic Microbiology. A Practical Approach’. Ed. P.N. Levett. IRL Press.

    Unrefereed publications

    Jackson, E., Sonbol, H., Masood, N., & Forsythe, S.J. 2014.
    Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of Cronobacter species, with particular attention to the newly reclassified species C. helveticus, C. pulveris, and C. zurichensis. ASM Boston.

    Forsythe, S., Dickins, B., Jolley, K. 2014.
    BIGSdb Cronobacter: the emergent pathogen Enterobacter sakazakii comes of age. ASM Boston.

    Hana Sonbol, Catherine McAuley, Heather Craven & Stephen Forsythe. 2012.
    Multilocus sequence typing of Cronobacter from milk powder and production factories. ASM San Francisco.

    Faisal Almajed, Sumyya Hariri & Stephen Forsythe. 2012.
    Characterization of a Cronobacter sakazakii ST4 strain from powdered infant formula product recall in Saudi Arabia. ASM San Francisco.

    Susan Joseph & Stephen Forsythe. 2012.
    Multilocus sequence typing (PubMLST) reveals clustering of C. sakazakii based on their sources. ASM San Francisco.

    Naqash Masood and Stephen Forsythe. 2012.
    Multilocus sequence typing of Cronobacter sakazakii; ST4 and variation in ompA and recN sequences. ASM, San Francicso.

    Naqash Masood and Stephen Forsythe. 2012.
    Multilocus sequence typing of Cronobacter sakazakii; ST4 and variation in ompA and recN sequences. SGM, Dublin.

    Hana Sonbol, Catherine McAuley, Heather Craven & Stephen Forsythe. 2012.
    Multilocus sequence typing of Cronobacter from milk powder production factories in Australia. SGM, Dublin.

    N. Rhouma & S. Forsythe. 2012.
    Biofilm influence on the bacterium Cronobacter sakazakii survival in infants stomach acidity. SGM, Dublin.

    Noha Juma & Stephen Forsythe. 2012.
    Biofilm formation of Acinetobacter on enteral feeding tubes and the associated risks to neonates in NICUs. SGM, Dublin.

    Faisal S. Almajed, & Steve J. Forsythe. 2012.
    Characterization of a Cronobacter sakazakii ST4 strain from powdered infant formula product recall in Saudi Arabia. SGM, Dublin.

    Halema Abudalla & Stephen Forsythe. 2012.
    Characterisation of Enterobacteriaceae from mastic milk and neonatal enteral feeding tubes. SGM, Dublin.

    Arturo Levican, Stephen Forsythe & Maria Jose Figueras. 2012.
    Adherence and invasion of recently described Arcobacter spp. to CaCo-2 cells. SGM, Dublin.

    Y. Ji, L. Degoricija, S. M. Shih, S. Joseph, C. A. Cummings, P. Brzoska, M. R. Furtado, M. McClelland, and S. Forsythe. 2011.
    Next generation sequencing and comparative analysis of eight Cronobacter genomes. ASM New Orleans.

    S. Joseph, S. Forsythe. 2011.
    Recombinational events and evolutionary relationships of Cronobacter species as revealed using multilocus sequence typing (PubMLST). ASM New Orleans.

    Susan Joseph, Nasreddin Rhouma, Aldukali Alkeskas, and Stephen Forsythe. 2011.
    ST4, A Genetic Fingerprint for meningitic strains of Cronobacter sakazakii as shown by multilocus sequence typing. IAFP.

    Rhouma N R and S J Forsythe. 2011.
    Temperature effect on biofilm formation by Cronobacter sakazakii. ASM New Orleans.

    Susan Joseph, Yongmei Ji, Lavorka Degoricja, Rita S. M. Shih, Zhaohui Zhou, Craig A. Cummings, Pius Brzoska, Manohar R. Furtado, Michael McClelland, and Stephen Forsythe. 2011.
    The diversity of the Cronobacter genus, as revealed by comparative genomic analysis. SfAM, Dublin.

    S.J. Forsythe, M. Czerwicka, A. Bychowska, P. Stepnowski, & Z. Kaczyski. 2010.
    Chemical structure of the O-polysaccharide isolated from the fatal meningitic Cronobacter sakazakii strain 767. ASM San Diego.

    S. Joseph, C. Dowson, & S.J. Forsythe.2010.
    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Cronobacter species. ASM San Diego.

    M. Loughlin, E. Kucerova, A. Reid, O., El Bakry, M. Robinson, T. Kershaw, Y-L Tsang, P. Nyakudya & S.J. Forsythe. 2010.
    Colonisation of neonatal enteral feeding tubes and persistence of strains in neonatal intensive care units. ASM San Diego.

    E. Cetinkaya , E. Gunes Altuntas, A. Alkeskas, S. Joseph, S. J. Forsythe, and K. Ayhan. 2011.
    The identification of Cronobacter sakazakii isolated from various foods in Ankarra-Turkey. Izmir, Turkey.

    E. Cetinkaya, E. Altuntas, H. Alsadeg, S. Joseph, M. Gillett, S.J. Forsythe, and K. Ayhan. 2010.
    The identification of Enterobacter sp. isolated from various foods in Ankara-Turkey.

    Rhouma N R, Loughlin M, and S J Forsythe. 2010.
    Temperature and formula dependence of biofilm production by Cronobacter sakazakii isolated from a neonatal intensive care unit outbreak. Foodmicrobe, 2010.

    Juncal Caubilla-Barron, Michael Loughlin, Stacey Townsend, Edward Hurrell, & Steve Forsythe. 2009.
    Comparative virulence of Cronobacter and Enterobacter species with Citrobacter koseri and Escherichia coli K1. ASM. Philadelphia.

    J. Chap, P. Jackson, R. Siqueira, N. Gaspar, C. Quintas, J. Park, T. Osaili, R. Shaker, Z. Jaradat , S.H.P. Hartantyo, N. Abdullah Sani, S. Estuningsih, & S.J. Forsythe. 2009.
    International survey of Cronobacter sakazakii and other Cronobacter spp. in follow up formulas and other infant foods. ASM Philadelphia.

    Juncal Caubilla-Barron, Eva Kucerova, Michael Loughlin, Emma Hartnett, Greg Paoli, & Steve Forsythe 2009.
    Bacteriocidal preparation of powdered infant formula. ASM Philadelipia.

    Juncal Caubilla-Barron, Eva Kucerova, Michael Loughlin, and Steve Forsythe. 2009. Bacteriocidal preparation of powdered infant formula. Cronobacter conference, Dublin.

    Jessica Chap Philip Jackson, Rosana Siqueira, Nelma Gaspar, Jon Park, Tareq Osmaili, Reyad Shaker, Ziad Jaradat, Norra Abdullah Sani, Sri Estuningsih, and Steve Forsythe. 2009.
    International survey for Cronobacter and related organisms in infant foods and formulas. Cronobacter conference, Dublin.

    Stacy M. Townsend, Edward Hurrell, Juncal Caubilla-Barron, Eva Kucerova, and Stephen J. Forsythe. 2009.
    The misidentification of Enterobacter hormaechei as Cronobacter spp. (E. sakazakii) in strains from Aldova et al. (1983) and Muytjens et al.(1988), and a neonatal intensive care unit outbreak. Cronobacter conference, Dublin.

    Edward Hurrell, Eva Kucerova, Michael Loughlin, and Steve Forsythe. 2009.
    Colonisation of enteral feeding tubes by Cronobacter spp. and other Enterobacteriaceae. Cronobacter conference, Dublin.

    Juncal Caubilla-Barron, Mike Loughlin, Stacy Townsend, Edward Hurrell, and Steve Forsythe. 2009.
    Comparative virulence of Cronobacter and Enterobacter species with Citrobacter koseri AND Escherichia coli K1. Cronobacter conference, Dublin.

    Maria Gillett, Ben Swift, Chris Sanders, Cath Rees, Christine Dodd, & Steve Forsythe. 2009. Microbiological analysis of powdered foods: Gram negative flora. SfAM, Brighton.

    Druggan, P., & Forsythe, S. (2008)
    A new culture media method for differentiating Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii strains based on recognition of self, and non-self. Foodmicrobe2008, Aberdeen.

    Caubilla-Barron, J. & Forsythe, S. (2007)
    Artifical neural network and analysis of MALDI-TOF data for the discrimination of Citrobacter koseri from other closely related Enterobacteriaceae. SGM Spring Conference, Edinburgh.

    Hurrell, E.C. & Forsythe, S. (2007)
    Production of bacterial biofilms by Enterobacter sakazakii and other Enterobacteriaceae on neonatal feeding tubes. IAFP, Orlando, FL.

    Townsend, S., Hurrell, E.C., Caubilla-Barron, J. & Forsythe, S. (2007)
    Characteristics and virulence of Enterobacter sakazakii from a neonatal intensive care unit outbreak. IAFP, Orlando, FL.

    Rowe, C.L., Philips, C., & Forsythe, S. (2007)
    Determination of a growth advantage in stationary phase (GASP) in three strains of A. butzleri . 14th Intl Workshop on CHRO, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    Townsend, S., Gonzalez-Gomez, I., Forsythe, S. & Badger, J. (2006)
    Comparative characterization of Enterobacter sakazakii cluster groups brain pathology in the infant rat and macrophage cytokine expression profiles. 106thASM General Meeting, Orlando, FL.

    Hurrell, E., Townsend, S. & Forsythe, S.J. (2006)
    Comparative virulence of Enterobacter sakazakii with other Enterobacteriaceae. 106thASM General Meeting, Orlando, FL.

    Caubilla-Barron, J. & Forsythe, S.J. (2006)
    Long-term persistence and recovery of Enterobacter sakazakii and other Enterobacteriaceae from powdered infant milk formula. 106thASM General Meeting, Orlando, FL.

    Loc-Carrillo, C., Fayet, O., Caubilla-Barron, J., Prere, M-f & Forsythe, S.J. (2006)
    Fatal outbreak of Enterobacter sakazakii in a neonatal intensive care unit; retrospective 1994 study. 106thASM General Meeting, Orlando, FL.

    Rose, C.L., Phillips, C.A. & Forsythe, S. (2005)
    The effect of different temperature regimes on three strains of Arcobacter butzleri. 13thCHRO Workshop, Gold Coast, Australia.

    Iversen, C., Druggan, P., Stephens, P. & Forsythe, S.J. (2005)
    Isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii using combined selective and differential enrichment broth and agar. 92ndIAFP, Baltimore, MA.

    Caubilla-Barron, J., Loc-Carrillo, C., Townsend, S., Druggan, P. & Forsythe, S.J. (2005)
    Endotoxin levels in powder infant milk formula and the translocation of Enterobacter sakazakii from the intestines. 105thASM General Meeting, Atlanta, GE.

    Iversen, C., Townsend, S., Druggan, P. & Forsythe, S.J. (2005)
    Comparison of methods for the isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii. 105thASM General Meeting, Atlanta, GE.

    Iversen, C., Lancashire, L., Ball, G. & S J Forsythe (2005)
    Identification of Enterobacter sakazakii from closely related species: the use of Artificial Neural Networks in the analysis of biochemical and 16S rDNA data. 105thASM General Meeting, Atlanta, GE.

    Iversen, C., Hyun Park, J., Caubilla Barron, J., Hargreaves, A. and Forsythe, S.J.(2005)
    Isolation, characterisation and virulence of Enterobacter sakazakii from Korean infant foods. SGM Meeting, Edinburgh.

    Iversen, C., Lazar Adler, N., and Forsythe, S.J.(2004)
    Virulence factors of Enterobacter sakazakii. 104th ASM General Meeting, New Orleans, LA.

    Druggan, P., Forsythe, S.J., Iversen, C. and Roberts, P. (2004)
    The Druggan-Forsythe-Iversen agar (DFI), a chromogenic medium for the detection fo Enterobacter sakazakii. 104th ASM General Meeting, New Orleans, LA.

    Iversen, C., Caubilla Barron, J. and Forsythe, S.J.(2004)
    Isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacteriaceae and other microbial contaminants from powdered infant formula milk and related products. 104th ASM General Meeting , New Orleans, LA.

    Caubilla Barron, J., Iversen, C. and Forsythe, S.J. (2004)
    The desiccation survival of Enterobacter sakazakii and related Enterobacteriaceae. 104th ASM General Meeting, New Orleans, LA.

    Iversen, C., Dale, H., Druggan, P., Waddington, M., Crawford, J. and Forsythe, S.J. (2004)
    The identification of Enterobacter sakazakii using partial 16S sequencing and biochemical techniques. 104th ASM General Meeting, New Orleans, LA.

    Loc-Carrillo, C., Waddington, M., Liu, X. and Forsythe, S.J.(2004)
    Phylogenetic relationship of Enterobacter sakazakii and related organisms. 104th ASM General Meeting, New Orleans, LA.

    Druggan, P., Forsythe, S.J. and Iversen, C. (2003)
    Isolating an emerging food-borne pathogen: Enterobacter sakazakii. The International Union of Microbiological Societies International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene (ICFMH), Working Party For Culture Media (WPCM), ICFMH - WPCM Worshop, Ljbljana, Sunday, 29th June 2003.

    On, S.L.W., Dorrell, N., Petersen, L., Bang, D.D., Morris, S., Forsythe, S.J., Ussery, D.W., Wren, B.W. (2003)
    "The successful clone" revealed: genetic and phenotypic characteristics distinguish "low" and "high" risk Campylobacter jejuni strains. CHRO 2003 Denmark.

    Morris, S., Hargreaves, A. and Forsythe, S.J. (2003)
    Characterisation of hemolysin produced by Campylobacter jejuni and Arcobacter butzleri CHRO , Denmark.

    Wooldridge, K., Jones, M., Morris, S., Carrasco, M., Powell, H., Forsythe, S. and Ala'Aldeen, D. (2003)
    Two toxin-related genes of C. jejuni have a role in colonisation of the chicken. CHRO , Denmark.

    Iversen, C., Hagreaves, A. and Forsythe, S.J. (2003)
    Growth rates and D-values of Enterobacter sakazakii in five suspending media. American Society for Microbiology 103rd Meeting, Washington.

    Hilton, C., Mackey, B. and Forsythe, S.J. (2000)
    The temperature response of Arcobacter butzleri NCTC 12481. Society for Applied Microbiology, Strathclyde.

    Mansfield, L.P., Holmes, K., Spears, K., Hargreaves, A. and Forsythe, S.J. (2000)
    Studies on the cell membrane of Arcobacter species from veterinary, water and human sources and the localisation of possible cytotoxins. Society for Applied Microbiology, Strathclyde.

    Society for Applied Microbiology (SfAM) SfAM conference July 2017